Diaconoff, Peter A. GOSPLAN and the Politics of Soviet Planning, 1929-1932.  Ph.D. diss.,

Indiana State University, 1973.  v + 209 pp. List of Abbreviations, Notes, Appendix featuring biographical sketches of key persons, Bibliography, Vita. LC: HC335.4.

 

This book is helpful regarding the interplay and power struggles between the government and the economic planning bureaucracy.  Of particular interest are the chapters discussing the increasing powers of GOSPLAN during the 1920’s that led to the eventual “victory of the political bureaucracy (71-122).

 

 

 

Diakiv-Hornovy, Osyp.  The USSR Unmasked: A Collection of Articles and Essays on Soviet

Repression in Ukraine.  Translated from the Ukrainian by Walter Dushhnyck. Introduction by Petro Mirchuk.  New York: Vantage Press, Inc., 1976.  xii + 311.

Black-and-white photographic Illustrations, Glossary. ISBN: 0533019966.

 

“My Memories of Osyp Diakiv-Hornovy,” (6/21/21-11/28/50) by Vasyl Diakiv.  A memorial testament by his father.  Includes Osyp’s last letter to his father, 1948.

 

“Official Announcement—Osyp Diakiv-Hornovy Dies a Hero’s Death” by the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council, and the Supreme Council of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in Ukrainian Lands.

 

This source is particularly relevant in that it points out the benefits of the kolkhoz system to Stalin.  “Further, the grain was necessary to feed the vast army and the entire party and police apparatus, to stock the military stores, and by its sale to pay agents and propagandists abroad” (13).

 

“How is the Collective Farmer Exploited?” (37-42)

 

Terror of citizenry, unwillingness to speak to foreigners for fear of reprisals (53)

 

Also mentions post-War Famine (107)

 

By describing events of the 1940’s, he proves that Stalin’s plans for the crushing of Ukrainian nationalism did not end with the Famine, but continued insidiously and cruelly for decades thereafter.

 

 

 

Dmytryshen, Basil.  Moscow and the Ukraine, 1918-1953: A Study of Russian Bolshevik

Nationality Policy.  New York: Bookman Assoc., 1956.  x + 310. Abbreviations, Notes, Bibliography, Index.  LCCN: 57-1284.

 

            Of particular relevance are the chapters:

 

            “Ukrainianization Policy” (57-90)

 

                        Charts:

                       

                                    “Institutes” and “Techicums” 1925-1929

 

                                    “Language of Instruction” (74-75)

 

“National Composition of Teaching Personnel, 1925, 1927, City and Village Trade Schools, Professional Schools, Technicums, and Institutes” (75)

 

“Ethnic Composition of Student Body 1925 and 1929 Technicums and Institutes” (76)

 

“Ethnic Numbers in Various Trades and Professional Schools” (77-78)

 

“Publication of Ukrainian Books, 1917-1927-28” (79)

 

“Composition of Workers and Employers” and “Ukrainian and Russian Newspapers/Periodicals by District” (80)

 

“Ethnic Composition as Percentage of Workers—Agriculture, Factories, Crafts, Railroads” (81)

 

“National Deviations” (91-121)

 

Integral Standardization” (122-150)

Describes the activities of the Party regarding Machine Tractor Stations (MTS), and collective farms.  Quote of Postyshev dated June 1922 at the CC of the CP (b) U Plenum complaining of what amounted to a lack of Bolshevik vigilance in performance of the Party’s orders, and the resulting purges (136-150).

 

“Total Regimentation” (151-182)

 

“Economic Relations” (183-214)

This chapter deals with the Famine and its political origin.

           

“That this cold-blooded massacre was deliberately engineered can be seen from the fact that every measure taken by the Government of the USSR during this period was intended to increase rather than to alleviate the difficulties of the population (201).

 

Includes charts dated from 1913-1942, of heavy and light industries, electrical, food and clothing production (195-210).

 

 

 

Dolot, Miron.  Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust.  New York and London: W.W.

Norton and Company, 1985.  Introduction by Adam Ulam.  xvi + 231pp.  Author’s Note, Epilogue, extensively footnoted, ISBN: 0-393-01886-5.

 

Miron Dolot (nom-de-plume), a Famine survivor who immigrated to the United States after World War II, began this book in 1953, and completed it in 1983.  He describes the destruction of his village between the years 1929-1933, and states that he wrote only about what he saw and experienced personally.  His Introduction provides a historical background from 1921.  He notes the condition and population of farm and wild animals in the Famine areas.  In 1928, there were 32 million horses in Ukraine, in 1934, that number decreased to 15.5 million.  These horses died because their value as laboring animals lessened by the introduction of mechanical tractors.  Since these animals no longer provided ‘good communist labor,’ they were not fed or cared for properly.  Like those humans who were too old, young, or infirm to work, farm animals, likewise, were considered “useless eaters.”  Horses were taken from their private owners for use at the collective farms, but this often was done before any plans or preparations for their care, feeding, or shelter had been made (91). 

 

Pets were killed for skins and food (151-152).  Nightingales and other wild birds were killed for the small amount of food their bodies provided.  So many birds were killed that their sweet song was silenced for years, until stocks naturally re-populated from outside the Famine-effected areas (173).

 

At the beginning of 1931, 1/3rd of the human population of his village already had been exiled or killed.  He describes interrogations; propaganda campaigns to solve problems of agriculture; forced separation of families by G.P.U.; the selling of goods in exchange for food.  Travel restrictions sealed people in areas of the country from which all foodstuffs had been removed.  He describes hungry people tormented by thoughts of food (141-143).  Significantly, he notes that the 1932 harvest was confiscated, and then left to rot at railway stations (161). 

 

Dolot cites the November 6, 1932, Council of People’s Commissars and Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Resolution prohibiting trade, removal of merchandise, forbidding “trade of foodstuffs.”  “We were imprisoned in our village without food, and sentenced to die the slow, agonizing death of starvation” (176). 

 

The often futile begging, examples of mercy even during these worst of times, and cannibalism that resulted from the insanity of starvation are noted.  The situation of children was particularly uncertain.  A child, whose parents had already died, cried for help, “My mommy won’t wake up!” (207).

 

 

 

 

Dubkovetsky, Fyodor. Advancing to Communism: Notes of a Pioneer of Collective Farming in the Ukraine.  2nd Edition.  Translation of Na shliakhakh do komunizmu. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1951.  xxxii + 158 pp.

 

Dubkovetskyi, a Bessarabian, begins his account with the events of the Russian Civil War, the anti-Petlyura movement, and his life as a hired hand of kulaks.  “It was the Committee of the Poor Peasants (CPP) that helped me” (17).  He became the Chairman of the village in 1922.  “The tractor arrived at Talnoye Station on April 13, 1926” (35).  He describes the Commune named, “Grains of October” (45), located near Kiziv.  Includes description of other artels (45-47).  His wife met Stalin, Kaganovich, et al, in Moscow (56-58) at the Collective Farms Congress.  Evacuated during World War II, he describes German Occupation of the farm, devastation of the farm and livestock after the Germans left (89).  Visit of Kaganovich July 20, 1947 (122-128). 

 

 

 

Dushnyck, Walter.  50 Years Ago: The Famine Holocaust in Ukraine: Terror and Human

Misery as Instruments of Russian Imperialism.  Foreword by Dana G. Dalrymple. New York and Toronto: World Congress of Free Ukrainians, 1983.  viii + 56 pp..  Footnotes, Bibliography, Black-and-white illustrations.  LCCN: 83-220996.

 

Includes a partial copy of “House Resolution H. Res. 399 of the 73rd Congress, 2nd sess., 1984,” and a historical overview.  The geographical extent of Famine; estimates of fatalities from starvation and related diseases; the struggle of children too small to accomplish the burial of their dead mother (13).  Stalin’s part in causing the Famine, and his reaction to its ravages, as related to the anti-nationalistic campaign.  The responsibility of the Kremlin is explored regarding the legislation of the Famine as the culmination of other de-Ukrainianization actions (68).  1933 New York Times headlines regarding the famine included. 

 

Significantly, the word, “holod,” (hunger or famine in Ukrainian) was decreed a counter-revolutionary rumor,” and punishable as such (27).

 

Dushnyck estimates the number of victims as 4-10 million based on comparison of census datum.  Stalin quoted, “ten million” (35).

 

New York Times dated September 21, 1953, “Memorial Manifestation,” by Rafael Lenkin, “Moscow-instrumented famine in Ukraine in 1932-33, was a deliberate and political genocide directed against the Ukrainian nation as such” (14).

 

The second section includes news items.  Chicago American for Wednesday, March 6, 1935, “Starvation of Peasants Villages Depopulated by Hunger in Ukraine as Soviets Punish Their Opponents.”  Chicago American for March 4, 1935, 2nd edition, “Hunger, Despair, Death in Ukrainian Agony,” with pictures from the newspaper article.

 

Also discussed are foreign opinions; international relief efforts; the official Soviet denial of the famine situation; and the New York protests on November 18, 1933.

           

 

 

Fisher, H. H.  The Famine in Soviet Russia, 1919-1923: The Operations of the American

Relief Administration. Hoover war library publications, no. 9. Stanford: Stanford University Press, and London: Oxford University Press, Mac Millan Co., 1927 and 1935.  Book One in Three Parts, Book Two in Five Parts.  x + 609 pp. Maps, Black-and-White Illustrations, Graphs, Appendix, Index. LC: D638.U5.

 

Useful for comparison purposes regarding causes of famine; common medical conditions resulting from the after-effects of famine diet; the successes and failures of international relief programs; the influence of international diplomatic and trade relations. 

 

 

 

Fitzpatrick, Sheila.  Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 1921-1934.  Soviet

and East European Series. Studies of the Russian Institute Columbia University. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.  xi + 355pp. Notes, Bibliography, Index. ISBN: 0521223253.

 

Chapters specifically of interest to Famine research in Parts II and III:

           

“Mass Education and Mobility in the Countryside” (155-184)

           

“The Restoration of Order: New Policies in Education, 1931-1934” (212-235)

                       

“The ‘New Class’: Social Mobility and Education under Stalin” (235-255)

 

 

 

Fitzpatrick, Sheila, and Lynne Viola, ed.  A Researcher’s Guide to Sources on Soviet Social

History in the 1930’s.  London and Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1990.  viii + 296pp. Appendices, Tables.  ISBN: 0-87332-497-8.

 

Lynne Viola added an “Introductory Note for Researchers” as the Preface of the book. Sheila Fitzpatrick’s Introduction, “Sources on the Social History of the 1930’s: Overview and Critique,” explains some of the difficulties researchers face when working in the Soviet archival system. 

 

Viola refers to a particularly helpful volume available at the New York Public Library, Dictionary Catalog of the Slavonic Collection of the New York Public Library, revised edition, 44 volumes.  Boston: G. K. Hall and Co., 1974.

 

Chapters of A Researcher’s Guide to Sources… include:

“Archival Resources from the 1920’s and 1930’s: Soviet Archival

Developments and Reference Aids for the Social Historian,” Patricia 

Kennedy Grimstead, (26-64)

 

            “Archival Research in the USSR: A Practical Guide for Historians,”

Lynne Viola, (65-83)

 

            “Guide to the Smolensk Archive,” (84-96), and “Soviet City Directories,” J. 

                        Arch Getty (202-214)

 

Tables:

 

                                    “Chronological Coverage of the Smolensk Archive” (85)

                       

“Population Density, Urbanization, Dependency on

Agriculture” (85)

                                               

“Working in Industry by Census Region, 1926” (88)

                                               

“Literacy, Income, and Infant Mortality by Census Region,

1926” (88)

                                               

“Regional Party Membership in 1934” (89)

 

Other Tables by J. Arch Getty in the chapter, “Soviet City Directories”

(202-214): 

 

“Soviet Government Positions Reported in Vsia Moskva in

1927, 1929, and 1931 (207).

 

“Sources of Recruitment of Upper-level Officials in Selected

State and Party Agencies, 1931 (2

                                               

“Availability of Soviet Directories” (214).

 

“Annual Reports of Industrial Enterprises in Soviet Archives as a

Historical Source for the 1930’s,” A. B. Bezborodov

 

“Guide to the Document Series on Collectivization: Appendix: Istoriia kollektivizatsii sel’skogo khoziaistva SSSR: An Annotated Bibliography,” Lynne Viola 105-131)

                       

“Guide to Document Series on Industrialization,” Lewis H. Siegelbaum

            (132-145)

 

“Laws and Administrative Acts: Sources and Finding Aids,” (146-152) “Legal

Journals and Soviet Social History,” Peter H. Solomon, Jr. (189-201)

 

“Statistical Sources for the Study of Soviet Social History in the Prewar

Period,” S. G. Wheatcroft (153-175)

 

“Newspapers and Journals,” Sheila Fitzpatrick (176-188)08)

Perestroika and the Study of Sources on Soviet Social History,” including

            “Appendix: Soviet Computerized Databases,” V.Z. Dobizhev, E. I.

            Pivovar, A. K. Sokolov (215-232)

 

“Soviet Memoirs as a Historical Source,” (233-254), and “Guide to Émigré

and Dissident Memoir Literature,” Hiroaki Kuromiya (255-265)

                       

“A Note on Military Sources,” Mark von Hagen (266-272)

                                               

The Appendices of A Researcher’s Guide…include:
                       

I. “National, Republican, and Regional Newspapers” (273-280)

            II. “Stenographic Reports of Party, Soviet, and Other Meetings”

            (281-288)