Ammende, Ewald.  Human Life in Russia.  Introduction by Lord Dickinson.  London: G.

Allen & Unwin, 1936.  ix + 319 pp. LCCN: 37-2220. Reprinted edition as annotated below:  Introduction by Lord Dickinson.  Historical Introduction by.  Cleveland:  John T. Zubal, Inc., 1984.  Reprinted with permission George Allen & Unwin Brothers, Ltd.  viii + 319.  Black-and-white Illustrations, Notes.  ISBN: 0-9339738-54-6.


            Ewald Ammende, Secretary General of the European Congress of Nationalities,

describes in his Introductory Preface (9-24) his letter to the Vienna Reichpost published June 26, 1933, in which he described the Famine conditions, and made suggestions for relief efforts.  In this letter, he also noted the Soviet government’s official denial.  Significantly, he authenticates his pictures of the Famine (22-23).


Pertinent chapters include:


            “Causes of Famine” (29-53)


            “The Catastrophe” (54-103)

Sub-headings, “Prior Autumn 1933,” “Autumn 1933-Autumn 1934,” and “Autumn 1934-onward”


            “Struggle of the Nationalities” (104-149)

            Includes details of the various ethnic groups, and their efforts to survive


            “Moscow’s Attitude” (150-185)

            Population decline since 1928

            Hospital Conditions reported by L. O. Jensen (US)

            No anesthetic even for amputations (151)


Stalin’s timber campaign (153-154)


Population purification White Sea Canal (169)


Types of Bread Shops (170)


Rationing levels (172-173)


                        Propaganda Methods (186-222)

The problems caused by distances, lack of transport, containment of foreigners, dealings with the secret police, “the conspiracy of silence” in the press (189)


“Retaliatory vengeance” on relatives for statements, escaping to West (191-192)


Foreign guests’ statement (205-207)


“Testimony of Monsieur Herriot” (223-257)

Describes Herriot’s twelve hours in Odessa, and twelve spent in Kyiv (224)

The rest of his trip was all controlled and orchestrated.  The veracity of Herriot’s writings was questioned, even at the time.


“The position of the Vatican” (279-280)


                        “The Problem of Rendering Assistance” (281-311)

Description of the victims. 


Torgsin System profitable to Soviet government (287-293)

Archbishop of Canterbury (304-305)




Bohdaniuk, Volodymyr, ed.  The Real Face of Russia: Essays and Articles.  Preface by

Major General J. F. C. Fuller.  London: Ukrainian Information Service, 1967.  x + 267 pp.


Discusses “Muscovite Messianism” and Russo-Soviet imperialism (23-35)


Chapters relevant to de-Ukrainianization, and crushing of individuality and creativity:


 “The Spirit of Russia,” by Dmytro Dontsov (9-76)


“The aim of the literature of Communism is to destroy every form of individualism in art and every personal feeling in creative work, and to substitute a collective and herd-like activity in the place of individual creativeness” (57).  Quoting Kerzhentsev, “There must be no individual inspiration!” (57). The so-called, “herd-mentality” developed by suppression of individualism in the arts as a part of the de-Ukrainianization process augmented attempts to suppress any dissent to the Stalinist policies that generated and augmented the progress of the Famine.


            “On the Problem of Bolshevism,” by Evhen Malaniuk (129-147)


“The Road to Freedom and the End of Fear,” Jaroslav Stetzko, former Prime Minister of Ukraine (233-250)




Bollinger, Johann and Janice Huber Stangl.  Marienberg: Fate of a Village. [Marienberg:

Schicksal eines Dorfes] English and German.  Fargo, North Dakota: The Germans from Russia Heritage Collection; North Dakota State University Libraries, 2000.  iii +  359.  Black-and-white Photographic Illustrations and Drawings, Maps, Surname Index.  ISBN: 1-891193-10-4.


“Resident List of the Village of Marienberg, County of [Krasny] Okna, District of Odessa Ukraine” (31-41)


“List  of the Women and Men of Marienberg who, in the years 1936-1938, were taken away by the Soviet Secret Police (N.K.V.D.)” (42-43)

Their names and fate as found in the Odessa Martryology (46-47)


            “Odessa Martyrology” (44-45)

Refers to the series of books, Odessa Martyology (Odessa, Ukraine: Memorial, 1997), which contains a list of 26,000 names of repressed persons (dated 1919-1984).


Chapter Three: “Letters” (139-272)

German and English translation of primary source letters written by residents of Marienberg, dated 1916-1932, describing dekulakization, deportation, Famine.

For example, Letter # 64, dated 27 April 1932 from Marienberg was published in the Dakota Rundschau on 10 June 1932:


B. has been imprisoned already for 5 months; but he is not guilty. You know that he was chairman of Selsowek for six years.  Everyone liked him. In late fall, they took everything away, and he wanted to see to it that people had bread to eat, and that was his undoing.  .  .  .  We have no bread and must starve; we had a good crop but they took away everything; yes, we even had to give up the chickens, and we have nothing for ourselves.  I bought a pud of cornmeal for 80 Rubles; that garbage was inedible, it was half sand.  .  .  .  How it will be this year, we don’t know; it is already 15 April and no crops have been sowed.  The horses cannot and the people also can’t—all for hunger (270).


Name Index regarding letters (273-282, 317-318)


Place Index (282-283, 319)






Borodin, Eric.  “Man-made Famines Throughout History.”  In Politics of Hunger, The

Champions of Freedom:  Ludwig von Mises Lecture Series.  Edited by Jospeph S. McNamara, vol. 15.  Preface by George Roche.  Foreword by Charles D. Van Eaton.  Hillsdale, Michigan: Hillsdale College Press, 1989.  vi + 138 pp.  Notes.  ISBN: 0-916308-86-3.


 Discussing the use of food as a weapon of political control, in “Man-made Famines Throughout History,” (25-44), Borodin describes the Holodomor in context with other such deliberate acts of genocide.  He notes in his chapter, “The Kulak Massacre,” (29-31):


“The kulaks (defined as peasants who had a yearly income of over 600 rubles in those days) were 3.3 percent of all the peasants and had in 1926, paid in 33.7 percent of all agricultural taxes” (29, quoting Malewsky-Malevitch, Russia-USSR: Complete Handbook.  New York: William Farquar Payson, 1983, pp. 418-420).


Also, Borodin quotes Stalin, speaking at the December 1927 Union Conference of Communist Agrarians, “The proposal that we should permit the kulaks to enter the collective farm is also ridiculous.  We cannot permit them to enter the collectives because they are the sworn enemies of the collectives” (Ibid., 420).


Borodin states, “It is now estimated that 22,000,000 died as a result of Stalin’s attempts to collectivize Soviet agriculture” (31).




Borys, Jurij.  The Russian Communist Party and the Sovietization of Ukraine: A Study in the

Communist Doctrine of Self-Determination of Nations.  Westport, Connecticut: Hyperion Press, Inc., 1981 reprint of the author’s Ph. D. diss., University of Stockholm, 2/27/60, Kungk: Boktryckeriet, P. A. Norstedt and Soner, Stockholm.

vi + 374 pp.  Abbreviations, Index of Names, Bibliography.  ISBN: 0-8305-0063-4.


For the greatest part, this book deals with the time period from the Late-Czarist Era to the creation of the USSR and its Constitution prior to the Famine of the 1930’s. Borys shows the political gathering of power by the Leninists-Stalinists, and the question of the Nationalities as it related to constitutional law.  Chapters IV and V are perhaps the most significant in that they detail Skrypnyk’s role in the Ukrainian opposition to Soviet rule regarding the nationalities issue (166-281).  




Borys, Jurij. The Sovietization of Ukraine 1917-1923: The Communist Doctrine and the

Practice of National Self-Determination.  Revised edition of Russian Communist Party and the Sovietization of Ukraine.  Thesis, University of Stockholm, 1960.  Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1980.  xv + 488 pp.  ISBN: 0-920862-01-2.


The greatly improved print quality, as well as updates and revisions to the text recommend the revised edition of this book.  This source is included as a suggested reading to acquire an understanding of the Soviet policies affecting Ukraine in the years leading up to the Famine.




Bur’ian, L. M., et al. Holodomor v Ukraini 1932-1933 rr.:  bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk.

Holodomor in Ukraine, 1932-1933: A Bibliography.  Odessa and L’viv: M.P. Kots’ Publishing, 2001.  Odessa State Scientific Library in Honor of Maksim Gorky, Ukrainian Studies Foundation in Australia, Institute for the History of Ukraine.  656 pp. Ukrainian and English.  Index, Maps, End papers are a collage of book covers from volumes dealing with the Famine. ISBN: 9667891038.


Contains more than 6000 entries primarily in the Ukrainian language about the Famine, and dated from 1932-2000.


“Our Nation’s Tragedy,” by L. H. Lukianenko, Head of the Association of

Researchers of the Genocidal Famine in Ukraine (14-18).


                        “In Memory of the Millions of Victims of the Genocide by Famine in

Ukraine,” by O. F. Botushanska, Honored Cultural Worker of Ukraine,

and Director of The Odesa State Scientific Library in Honor of Maksim Gorky, Odesa, Ukraine (22-24).


“The Darkest Page in the History of Ukraine,” by S. V. Kulchytskyi (44-



            Some of the English sources this Bibliography recommends:


“The Famine: Authentic Documentation on the Mass Starvation in the

Soviet Union,” Vienna, 1934, 64 pp.


“First Victims of Communism: White Book on the Religious

Persecution in Ukraine,” translated from the Italian, 1953, 115 pp.


“Soviet Russian Genocide in Ukraine: 50th Mournful Anniversary of

the Man-made Famine: A Memorandum Submitted to His Excellency J.P. de Cuellar, Secretary General of the United Nations by the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America,” New York: The Committee, 1983, 7 pp.


“On the So-Called ‘Famine’ in the Ukraine,” News Release, 28 April,

1983 (Issued by the Press Office of the Embassy of the USSR in Ottawa, Canada) 1-3.





Carynnyk, Marco.  Making the News Fit to Print: Walter Duranty, The New York Times, and

the Ukrainian Famine of 1933, 1983.  Adopted from his book, The Hungry Horse.  i +27.  References and Notes.  Dewey: 363.8094771 [ISBN n/a].


Points to evidence from British Foreign Office that Duranty “deliberately misrepresented the facts about the Soviet Union” (2).  Journalists were restricted to an “approved route” (4). 


Carynnyk mentions appeal letters used to contradict Duranty’s reporting.  Katherine Schutock of Jackson Heights, New York is quoted:


The people who wrote such pathetic letters. . . are not looking for help because it cannot reach them. Money cannot reach them, and if it does they receive only half of what they sign for.  Receipt of help from America only gets them in trouble with the Cheka (8-9).




Carynnyk, Marco, Lubomyr Y. Luciuk, and Bohdan S. Kordan, ed. The Foreign Office and

the Famine: British Documents on Ukraine and the Great Famine of 1932-33.  Studies in East European Nationalism, No. 2, edited by Richard A. Pierce.  Kingston, Ontario; Vestal, New York: Limestone Press, 1988.  Foreword by Michael R. Marrus.  lxi + 493 pp. Black-and-white and Color Maps, Notes, Sources, Bibliography, Index. ISBN: 0919642314; 0919642292 (pbk); LCCN: 89-100160


Introduction by Michael R. Marrus, “Choosing Not to See,” (xvii-lxi) includes:



                        “Rates of Decline in the Rural Female Cohort of 1929-1933” (xlix-l)


Duranty’s report: N7182/114/38 26 September 1933 (1)



“Area sown and principle crops 1932 harvest” (128)


Documents, Situation Reports, Conditions described


                        “Seed collection in Soviet Union,” 28 March 1932 (3)


                        “Conditions in Soviet Union,” 4 May 1932 (5)


“Conditions in Western Siberia, Kazakistan, and Certain Districts Along the Volga” (28)


            “Protection of State Undertakings,” 10 August 1932 (104)


“Situation in Soviet Union: Soviet Attitude toward the Foreign Press.” 6 December 1932 (209)


“Establishment of Soviet Procurator’s Department,” 26 June 1933 (243)


                                    “Harvest in Ukraine,” 15 August 1933 (279)


                                    “Soviet Meat Quota for Delivery to the State,” (305)


“Tour by Mr. Walter Duranty in North Caucasus and the Ukraine,” 16 September 1933 (309)


“Famine in Ukraine,” 27 September 1933 (317)


“Alleged Famine in The Ukraine,” 30 September 1933 (322)


“Relief of Famine in Soviet Ukraine,” 27 October 1933 (329)


“Ukrainian Nationalism,” 18 December 1933 (365)


“German-Ukrainian Relations,” February 1934 (370)


“Kiev Food Trial,” 15 June 1934 (393)


“Famine Condition in the Soviet Union,” several reports dating from 2 July 1934-April 1935 (397-443)