Encyclopedia of Ukraine.  Danylo Husar Struk, ed.  Volume Five of Five, St-Z. 

Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (University of Alberta), Shevchenko  Scientific Society (Sascelles, France), and the Canadian Foundation of Ukrainian Studies.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.  Black-and-white, and Color Illustration, Maps, Charts, Graphs, Bibliographic Information Following Each Article. 886 pp.  ISBN: 0-8020-3995-2; 0-8020-3010-6, Collector’s Edition.


“Taxation” (175-179)

[Taxation in] “Soviet Ukraine” (177-179)


“Tractor Industry” (249-250)       

Machine Tractor Stations, and the development of agricultural machine industry in the USSR as part of Stalin’s industrialization drive.


“Typhus” (331-332)

One of the diseases of epidemic levels commonly associated with famine

conditions, and especially devastating to those persons already in

weakened physical condition.


“Ukrainian Research and Documentation Centers” (427)


“Ukrainians” (459-462)


Table 2:


“Ukrainians in World in the 18th-20th Centuries” 1914, 1926-31, 1933, 1939 (460)


            “Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” (494-503)


            “United States of America” (513-529)

Picture of Ukrainian-Americans Commemorative Rally, 2 October 1983 (517)


            “Village” (603-604)




Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. Volodymyr Kubijovyc, ed.  Volume One of Two. 

Foreword by Ernest J. Simmons.  Prepared By Shevchenko Scientific Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963.  Translation of: Entsyklopediia ukrainoznavstva. viii + 1185pp. Notes, Black-and-white and color Illustrations, and Drawings, Maps, Index, Bibliographic Notes following each entry, Transliteration Guide, List of Abbreviations.


Volume One:

Articles appear under the headings: General Information, Physical Geography, Population, Ethnography, Language, History, Culture, and Literature.




“Size and Structure of the Population.”


“However, the population growth was normal in the Ukrainian SSR only from 1924-1930—prior to the subjugation of the Ukrainian population to years of repression” (169).  Discusses low birth rate, infant and child mortality (172), increased urbanization (184), density of population in 1932—map and article (180-182).


Population movement: before World War I, between World War I and the Russian Revolution, normal population movement, compulsory movement during collectivization and World War II, post-World War II (186-208) with charts and maps.

“Ethnic Composition of the Population” (208-250), including charts and maps, 1932 and 1933. 


Figure 110: “Population of the Ukrainian SSR (in its present

boundaries) from 1900-1961 (in millions)”


Figure 137: “Increase and Decrease in Percentage of

Ukrainians 1927-1959” (226)

Table III.  “Age Groups in Ukrainian SSR (1926), and in

Western Ukraine (1931)”

Table XIV.  “Ukrainians outside Ukrainian SSR,” i.e. in the

Volga Region, Diaspora: 1880, 1914, 1933, 1959 (249)


“Settlement Patterns Change in Soviet Era” (259-260), with Comparison to Traditional Village (255-259).


                        “Food Storage” (295-297)

With pictures and drawings, including grain storage pit, mortar-and-pestle, grindstone.


                        “People’s Way of Life, Folklore, and Art Under the Soviets” (422-429).


                        “Language Research and Suppression” (439)


                        “Suppression of Ukrainian Historiography” (570-574)


                        “Ukrainianization” (809-811).


                                    “The drive for Ukrainianization was formally initiated by Michael

Frunze at the 7th Congress of the KP(b)U held in Kharkhiv, April 10, 1923. ‘Frunze attacked the remnants of Russian imperialism and chauvinism in Ukraine, and demanded that party members, all government and public institution officials learn to speak Ukrainian, to respect Ukrainian culture, and to permit as many Ukrainians as possible to join their ranks’” (810).


                        “Anti-Ukrainianization” (811).


                        “Political Struggle in the KP(b)U”(811-814)


“The Drive for Economic Change” (814-818) includes situation faced by

Kurkuls during collectivization.


                        “The Economic Situation and the Famine of 1932-33” (820-828), includes:

                                    “The Arrival of Postychev

                                    “The Death of Skrypnyk

                                    “Collectivization and Industrialization”




Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia.  Volodymyr Kubijovyc, ed.  Volume Two of Two. 

            Prepared by Shevchenko Scientific Society.  Published for the Ukrainian National

Association.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971.  Bibliographic Information following each article, Photographs, and Illustrations, Tables and Charts as applicable, Maps, Transliteration Guide, and List of Abbreviations.  ISBN:  0-8020-3261-3.


Contains articles about: “The Law, The Ukrainian Church, Scholarship, Education and Schools, The Ukrainian SSR, Libraries, Archives, Museums, Book Publishing and the Press, The Arts, Music, Choreography, Theater and Cinema, National Economy, Agriculture, Health and Medical Services and Physical Culture, The Armed Forces, Ukrainians Abroad.”  


                        “Effect of Economic Restructuring on Scholarship” (261-265)


                        “Educational Changes in 1930’s and Russification, Social Discrimination”


                        “Reorganization of Libraries” (395-398)


                        “Bibliographic History Due to Repressions” (438-439)


                                    Table III.  “Drop in Book Production, 1928-1934” (462)


            “The Soviet Economic System in Ukraine” (710-733)


                        “Preobrazhensky’s Proposal and Stalin’s Correction” (711-712)


                        “Exploitation of Agriculture” (712-713)


                        “Monopolistic ‘Inflation’” (713-714)


                                    Figure 403.  “The Turnover Tax,” Graph (716)


                        “Economic Discrimination Among Social Classes,” and, “Among

                        Nationalities” (717-720)

Economic discrimination is particularly significant in light of the fact

that it was much more difficult, if not impossible, to overcome the

limitations placed on one’s ability to advance due to the unalterable fact of one’s ethnic or national background.




                                    “Bread and Wheat Prices, 1913-1965” (718)


                                    “Calico and Pig Iron, 1913-1960” (719)


                                    “Prices of Rye Grain, 1925/6-1940” (720)


            “Russia’s Gain at Ukraine’s Expense” (721-724)

Details the benefits gained from the economic manipulation of Ukrainian resources, and items of production.


            Table I.: “Balance of Fiscal Transactions Between Ukrainian SSR and

            the USSR (millions of current rubles), 1913, 1961” (722)

            The lack of normal monetary conversion of the Soviet ruble in                                  international trade has traditionally been cited as one of

the causes for the Famine, in that Stalin needed commodities to trade for western goods and technology.  See also, “Balance of Trade” article and accompanying Tables noted below.


            “Principles Underlying the Present Soviet Economic System” (724-726)


            “The Soviet Economic Government” (726-727)


            “Economic Planning” (727-733)


            “Some Peculiarities of the Ukrainian Plans” (731-733)




                         The Structure of Soviet Economic Administration” (732)


            “Agriculture, 1929-44” (852-858)

            History of agriculture from before 1861-present. Illustrated.




                        Percent of Collectivized and Number of Collectivized Farms”



                                    Typical grain distribution 1939 (856)


                        Table I:


                                    World Grain Exports 1909-1913 (847)


                                    World Grain Exports 1929-1944 (852-858)



                                    State Purchase Price, State Retail in City Stores, Gross Profit

                                    Mark-up (858)


            Western Ukraine between 1914 and 1939 (858-860)


                        Table XVI: 


                                    “Animal Husbandry, 1916-1940” (883)

                                                Cattle/cows, hogs, horses, sheep and goats, showing

                                                drastic decreases in livestock population, 1928-1935


            “Finance” (952-978)

            Includes history prior to 1917.


            “Soviet Finances Before 1930 Reform” (958-960)   


            “Balance of Trade of Ukrainian SSR Before World War II” (936-938)


                        Table I. “Official Gold Content of One Ruble, 1697-1969”

                        Drop in Value 1924-1950 (963)                                


                        Table II.  “Ruble-Dollar Exchange Rate”                  

                        Note the drop 1923-1937-49 (964)


            “Healthcare in the Ukrainian SSR” (1018-1021)


            “Health and Medical Care, 1931-4”


                        The Famine (1019)

Notes deaths recorded as “avitaminosis,” and a sharp increase in tuberculosis mortality figures (1019)